|HARDNESS||no lather & soap scum, white scale in pipes & hot water systems||excessive levels of magnesium &calcium||water softener|
|SEDIMENT||feels abrasive when washing, leaves residual in bath||sand, silt & particles||media filtration cartridge filtration|
|ODOUR||grassy or musty||organic matter||activated carbon|
|chlorine||excessive chlorination||activated carbon|
|rotten egg||hydrogen sulphide||manganese greensand,chlorination, aeration|
|chemical (phenol)||industrial waste seeping into water supply||stop seepage, useactivated carbon|
|TASTE||salty or brackish||total dissolved salts||reverse osmosis|
|metallic||low pH||neutralise pH|
|high iron content||oxidation & filtration|
|TURBIDITY||mud, silt & clay||colloidal matter in water supply||clarification|
|ACID WATER||blue, green stains on plumbing fixtures||low pH reacting with copper & brass pipings, fittings||neutralise pH|
|RED WATER||red staining of fixtures & laundry||dissolved iron||oxidation and filtration|
|red sediment when water is left standing||precipitated iron||filtration|
|red colour even after standing for 24 hours||colloidal iron||oxidation, filtration &chlorination|
|MILKY WATER||cloudiness when drawn||trapped air in system||flush water through tap until clear|
|BLACK TINGE TO WATER||black staining of fixtures & laundry||excessive manganese content||oxidation & filtration|
|HEAVY METALS||no colour, taste or odour signs. Possible health effects||industrial waste pollution, corrosion products||reverse osmosis OR Aquaspace OR Doulton Ultracarb cartridges|
|NITRATES||no colour, taste or odour signs. May be a health hazard for human consumption||excessive agricultural spray applications||reverse osmosis OR nitrate cartridge|
|PESTICIDES&HERBICIDES||chemical taste||excessive agricultural spray applications||reverse osmosis OR Aquaspace OR Doulton Ultracarb cartridges|
Turbidity in water is caused by suspended matter and is expressed in terms of an arbitrary scale of units; the higher the number, the greater the concentration of turbidity. The turbidity analysis level, after filtration is an indication of the ability of a filteringmedium to remove the suspended matter.
|Colour is usually caused by dissolved organic matter (tannins) but can be due to iron oxide or iron tannate particles which are extremely small (colloidal). This colloidal material appears to be in solution and cannot be filtered without coagulation. Colour is expressed also in terms of an arbitrary scale of units.|
|The description of odour shown in an analysis is not necessarily that which characterised the water at the time the sample was taken. Substances which are responsible for taste and odour are frequently lost or altered while the sample is in transit to the laboratory. If taste or odour is a problem, it should be described when submitting sample.|
|This is the sum of the Calcium and Magnesium content of the water. Hardness forms a curd with soaps and detergents resulting in their wastage and diminishing their effectiveness for laundering. The curd adheres to cloth fibres, dishware and glasswareproducing a dull film which is capable of harbouring bacteria and reducing fabric life. When hard water is heated or evaporated, a heat insulating scale is formed in water heaters, boilers, air-conditioning and cooling systems resulting in wastage of fuel or lossof efficiency.|
|A calculated value used to predict the capacity of certain softeners to compensate for the fouling of Iron and Manganese on the softener resin.|
|Expresses the acid or alkaline strength of the water. A pH of 7.0 is neutral – values decreasing below 7.0 represent increasing acid strength and increasing values above 7.0 represent increasing alkaline strength.|
|In excess of 0.3 mg/L, iron will stain laundered fabrics, dishware, glassware and plumbing fixtures. Iron unites with tannins in coffee, tea and some alcoholic beverages producing and objectionable appearance and flavour.|
|Bacterial contamination may exist in waters containing nitrate. Waters containing nitrate should be examined bacteriologically by Local or State Department of Health Laboratories. Water containing nitrate should not be used for infant feeding.|
Manganese is similar to iron in its tendency to stain. This is particularly true in laundering when chlorine bleaches are used.
|Total Dissolved Solids – represents the mineral/salts content of the water. High TDS affects taste and can be detrimental to certain health conditions. It is also corrosive to metal pipes and fittings and can cause some scaling.|
Refers to the ability of a water to conduct electricity and is related to the total TDS content of the water.
mg/L is an abbreviation for milligrams per litre. The units of mg/L expressed by this analysis are in terms of the ionic species reported unless otherwise stated.